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    How did fork work in Venix originally on the 8086 without an MMU? Did it just make literal copies of segments using something like memcpy? Did fork have different semantics?

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      Pretty sure it literally just copied the process image.

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        For it to have “real fork semantics” I guess it would have to but that seems like it would be super slow without paging/COW, especially given the speed of the hardware.

        I guess that’s how it was in the earliest Unicies too, so…authentic I guess.

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          Slow is relative, of course. One thing to note is due to segment/process limitations, you’d be moving a few 10s of kilobytes of memory, not MB/GB. Impressive what they did with 64k+64k I+D.