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This paper presents and evaluates a novel availability metric: windowed user-uptime. It directly models user-perceived availability and avoids the bias in commonly used availability metrics. Second, by simultaneously calculating the availability metric over many windows it can readily distinguish between many short periods of unavailability and fewer but longer periods of unavailability.

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      …and it just got a summary write-up at https://blog.acolyer.org/2020/02/26/meaningful-availability/