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    I have some bad news for you.

    First of all, the code

    if (head[nb] == NULL)
        head[nb] = new atomic_ring_element<Z>(zero);

    is not exception-safe (though this can be easily fixed).

    More problematic is that C++‘s std::atomic<T> isn’t necessarily lock-free:

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      It’s not really news that atomics aren’t necessarily lock free; it just means there are some restrictions on what types it makes sense to use them for. Scalars that fit into a CPU word and pointers, basically. By using pointers you can manage larger more complex objects. (Though I don’t believe atomic unique_ptrs are lock-free, so you need to do some manual memory management.)