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    It would be interesting to compare the networking performance of Linux and maybe FreeBSD on these same devices to get a cross-OS speed comparison.

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      I’ve been testing OpenBSD/PF router performance myself. I don’t understand the reasons but routing performance with Intel E1000/em driver NICS is really sensitive to CPU performance on OpenBSD and FreeBSD. My test machine is an Intel Atom D525 and as a NAT Router/packet filter, I found this combination to have a maximum speed slightly under 600Mb/s. Changing the CPU to a Core i3-4170 resulted in a combination that could easily nat, filter, and route packets at full speed under all three of OPNsense, OpenBSD 6.8, and OpenBSD 6.9.

      I’m told that Linux should be able to nat, filter, and route packets with ease on my Atom D525. It should be noted that all three of the Operating Systems mentioned here, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, and Linux, are using different drivers for Intel E1000 hardware.

      This problem was acute and local to me. I solved it by moving from Intel 1GigE hardware to Intel 10GigE hardware.

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        My test machine is an Intel Atom D525 and as a NAT Router/packet filter, I found this combination to have a maximum speed slightly under 600Mb/s.

        I have a similar D525 based machine with two Intel NICs (can’t remember the chipset and it’s turned off) that I used VyOS (Linux) on for a while. I had no issues routing 1 Gbps between different networks on that machine, used a bunch of subinterfaces for each VLAN balanced between the interfaces. No NAT when routing in that case, and my connection is just 100/100 Mbps.

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          The Intel e1000 driver in OpenBSD is not at performant as the one in Linux, or the one in FreeBSD. As a result routing packets across e1000 nics on OpenBSD is CPU bound. You’ll have no trouble routing packets at full speed on a Core i3 machine but the Atom just doesn’t have the CPU to keep up.