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      A lot of “embedded” libcs do some pretty sketchy things; frustration with this sort of thing is what prompted the development of musl. I imagine given its dependency on a linux kernel it wouldn’t work in the kind of environments the author is dealing with, but fwiw here’s rand.c:

      #include <stdlib.h>
      #include <stdint.h>
      static uint64_t seed;
      void srand(unsigned s)
      	seed = s-1;
      int rand(void)
      	seed = 6364136223846793005ULL*seed + 1;
      	return seed>>33;
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      User with the username “nomemory” submits a post about an unexpected malloc. Hmmm. ;)

      Good article though, I just thought the coincidence was amusing.

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        Got the nickname as silent protest to my parents who in 99 or 98 refused to buy me additional 32RAM so I can play Half Life…

        I got past this unfortunate event, but I kept the username.

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      More generally: any libc function may call malloc. If this matters to you, then you should look at the libc internals and audit any function that you care about. Folks that ship a libc need to think about this in a few places. For example, FreeBSD libc uses jemalloc, which uses locks to protect some data structures, but the locks call malloc and so have their own bootstrapping path.

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        The specification of a lot of functions doesn’t have a suitable failure mode, so no, they can’t really call malloc (and require it to succeed) without being non-conformant.

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        That’s not true, async-signal-safety is a thing.

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      BTW, using rand is a bad idea since some implementations of it return extremely poor quality results. Use random instead. From the Linux man page:

         on older rand() implementations, **and on current
         implementations on different systems**, the lower-order bits are
         much less random than the higher-order bits.  Do not use this
         function in applications intended to be portable when good
         randomness is needed.  (Use random(3) instead.)

      (Emphasis mine)

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      Also known as, “why implicit global state will always fuck you”.

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        In this case it’s not the global state per se, but that for some reason the global state is heap-allocated on first use, even though it just consists of a single integer.

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          The global state is heap-allocated because the function has to be re-entrant, or at least because the re-entrancy is enabled in the libc options. That means if you have multiple threads they each get their own rand() state… because rand() is designed around having implicit global state.

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            The C standard has no such mandate for rand().

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              The global state required by the C standard is the seed used by rand() that can be set with srand(unsigned seed). I strongly prefer the rand_r(unsigned int *seed) function defined in the blog post since that makes the state explicit and up to the caller whether it is global.

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                rand() needing global state yes, being re-entrant, no.

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                  Right, because the standard was written before my old ass was born, when threads didn’t exist on Unix.

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            You’re talking about per-thread state, i.e. a thread-local variable. It doesn’t necessarily need to be heap-allocated, although usually that’s an implementation detail of thread-local variables.

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              Ah you’re correct, I forgot thread-locals exist. My bad.