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    It seems like the problem of file and directory system fragmentation might be amendable to the kind of data structure used in cache-oblivious B-trees and such - basically an van emde boas tree on disk with enough empty space between items to allow data to be incrementally moved (and kept sequentially ordered) as it’s inserted rather than having to do a specific deframentation operation (the stuff Michael Bender and Tokutech have been working on for years).