WebP was looking promising for a while. Facebook got some pretty significant performance wins with it.
It never replaced JPEG as a general purpose image format, but it’s still in use in the DCI digital cinema package spec. I think the reason it never became more popular was more due to power budgets at the time it was proposed – JPEG2k didn’t really offer much over JPEG in terms of PQ and is way more computationally intensive. By the time hardware had caught up, it didn’t matter much.
It also gained quite a bit of use in archiving. I think that was mostly driven by two features: 1) JPEG2000 supports both lossy and lossless modes, so you can replace both the TIFF and JPEG use-cases with just JPEG2000; and 2) JPEG2000 has partial-extraction features for dealing with very large digitized images, such as extracting reduced-resolution versions, or cropped portions an image, without decoding the whole thing.
For #2, previously some archives (like the Library of Congress) had used the proprietary MrSID format, which JPEG2000 to some extent displaced.
It seems to be losing some steam now, partly because since consumer use never picked up, organizations are wondering whether they should move to another format for long-term usability. And for many archives, typical resolution of their largest images hasn’t been growing as fast as computational resources have been growing, so just dealing with big temporary images or pre-rendered multiresolution/tiled sets is no longer as impractical as it was 10 years ago.
I think the main reason JP2 hasn’t caught on is that it’s sloooow.
One of the reasons that JPEG2000 has lagged in adoption is that you can’t download the standard for free.
There’s some discussion about why JP2 is slow as fuck over on HN.
I think the reasons that never made it big are because GIF is still being used, and PNG is more prevalent than JPEG.
No, the use cases for JPEG versus PNG/GIF are very different: JPEG is lossy while the other two are not.
GIF is lossy for most cases (256 color pallette) , and PNG can be used in a lossy manner1, though it rarely is.