Nice! Qt has the ability to get the sender of the signal I think using sender(), so I guess it is not 1 to 1, but still pretty good.
As mentioned in the post, signal/slots can bring some great architecture benefits. A downside can be that the flow can be harder to follow, especially for newcomers to the software stack. This is of cause not different from C code using a lots of function pointers, which also adds to the cognitive efforts. At $work we have generally embraced the signal/slot design, using fx boost::signals2 or, lately nod which proved a great success on an mbed-os based project