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    Space Harrier looks amazing given the hardware.

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      This makes me think of an alternate reality where Japan has a significant chip designer like Intel or AMD. Does anyone know why Japan didn’t end up with a company like this? I do know Sony developed the PS3 chip, but it was in partnership with IBM.

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        The various Renesas chipsets (SH4, etc) are in tons of embedded systems. You probably have a couple in your car.

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          They also powered all later Sega consoles (specifically, the 32X, Dreamcast, and Saturn). They’re really nice chips, and also now have open-source clones that I’ve heard positive things about.

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          There actually were several, but they focused more on the microcontroller and embedded markets and not the high-end.

          NEC was making 8088 clones, which they followed with a 32-bit architecture. They even launched the PC Engine to compete with Nintendo (successfully in Japan, but flopped when brought to the US as the TurboGrafx-16)

          Hitachi was a second-source manufacturer of the 68000 and others for a long time. They had the H8 family, and as barbeque mentioned, the SuperH family.

          It should be noted that Renesas owns most of this now.

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            does Softbank acquiring ARM count?

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            NetBSD also has support for x68k:


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              I’ll never get over people calling the MC68000 a 16-bit CPU when so many of its parts are 32 bits wide. I wonder whether the MC68008 would be 8-bit.

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                Well, firstly, I have absolutely seen the 68008 referred to as an 8-bit CPU, although usually as something along the lines of an 8/16-bit hybrid. But more to your point:

                While the registers and internal bus of the 68000 and 68010 are 32 bits wide, the ALUs of those two chips are critically only 16-bit, meaning that adding two 32-bit numbers takes at least two clock cycles, not counting instruction decode times. The external bus is also only 16 or 24 bits wide, depending on the model. That combo makes calling the 68000 and 68010 a 16-bit CPU pretty reasonable to me. By contrast, the 68020 and all later 68k chips have full 32-bit ALUs and external databuses, and I have never seen those referred to as anything but 32-bit chips.

                If it helps, you might compare the original 68000 to the HP Saturn, which has 64-bit registers and a 20-bit address bus, but is usually (and properly, IMHO) considered a 4-bit CPU. If the 68000 can count as a 32-bit chip when its ALUs are 16-bits and its external address bus is only 16 or 24 bits wide, then the Saturn should be considered a 64-bit CPU, and vice-versa.

                [Edit: it’s fair to mention that this is all still a bit fungible. I’m pointing out that the 68000 had 16-bit ALUs as part of the justification here, but the Z80 had a 4-bit ALU, if I remember correctly, though it’s counted as an 8-bit chip. Because that’s the only 4-bit piece of the Z80, it still seems fair, but this is definitely more subjective the more I think about it.]