Quoting the README:
maybe runs processes under the control of ptrace (with the help of the excellent python-ptrace library). When it intercepts a system call that is about to make changes to the file system, it logs that call, and then modifies CPU registers to both redirect the call to an invalid syscall ID (effectively turning it into a no-op) and set the return value of that no-op call to one indicating success of the original call.
As a result, the process believes that everything it is trying to do is actually happening, when in reality nothing is.
That being said, maybe should :warning: NEVER :warning: be used to run untrusted code on a system you care about! A process running under maybe can still do serious damage to your system because only a handful of syscalls are blocked. Currently, maybe is best thought of as an (alpha-quality) “what exactly will this command I typed myself do?” tool.