1. 4

From the abstract

Our results demonstrate that measurement bias is significant and commonplace in computer system evaluation. By significant we mean that measurement bias can lead to a performance analysis that either over-states an effect or even yields an incorrect conclusion. By commonplace we mean that measurement bias occurs in all architectures that we tried (Pentium 4, Core 2, and m5 O3CPU), both compilers that we tried (gcc and Intel’s C compiler), and most of the SPEC CPU2006 C programs. Thus, we cannot ignore measurement bias. Nevertheless, in a literature survey of 133 recent papers from ASPLOS, PACT, PLDI, and CGO, we determined that none of the papers with experimental results adequately consider measurement bias.

The Emery Berger talk at Strange Loop 2019, “Performance Matters” is the continuation of this research and well worth watching.