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    I’m not sure if bitbottle counts as an index or list in your categorization, but it feels like an index to me. I tried to document it here in case that gives you some new ideas – it stores the file metadata & file data blocks separately, so it can deduplicate contents.

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      Yeah, sounds closest to the “index” classification. Thanks, I’ll have to look at bitbottle more.

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      The https://lobste.rs/s/4vjkbb/tar_archive_format_its_extensions_why_gnu story inspired me to write my own archive format for fun. Three days later, here we are. Turns out the format itself is the easy part, making a program that actually handles all the OS-specific stuff it needs to do to store and re-create files faithfully is actually a lot more work.