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    “I came across the work of Alan Kay, the inventor of Object Oriented Programming.”

    Alan Kay didn’t invent object-orientation, Nygaard and Dahl did as evidenced by their Turing Award citations. This Alan Kay/Smalltalk as inventor mistake prevents the author from seeing beyond “object-orientation as message passing”. As recently as September 2017, James Gosling stated that Java’s object model is entirely based on Simula, which explains the ops confusion about how and which primary paradigm Java and C++ supports - object-orientation.

    It is the concepts introduced in Simula:- objects, classes, inheritance and virtual functions, that are of importance today. The contribution of Smalltalk’s focus on “messaging between objects, all the way down” is not.

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      The author seems to have no idea what an “algebra” is. From a universal algebra point of view, an algebra consists of a carrier set, and operations of various arities defined on the set. Objects are not algebras. In an object-oriented world, each individual object carries its own operations. Algebras correspond much more closely to abstract data types, as even proponents of object-orientation acknowledge.

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        I’m not sure that’s a correct usage of the word paradox.