1. 1

    I believe the word you want here is “rendering”.

    1. 1

      Good grief just pick something already.

      This is turning into a undergrad designing their first language.

      1. 3

        With the number of bad choices requiring huge transition phases a various well designed languages have had why rush now?

        1. 2

          Quite the opposite. An undergrad would have just picked something & run with it. It takes many years of painful experience to know that this is a very risky proposition.

        1. 23

          Lol. I’ve spent weeks hunting bugs where the fix ended up literally being a single bit change. To be clear, that’s not intended to be a flex but rather an underlining of the original author’s point that a line of code is not really a metric of anything at all.

          1. 26

            I came to say something similar. I recently found a bug in the Linux kernel in an obscure code path that no one except us and paravirtualised MIPS use (which, realistically, means no one except us). Debugging took several days. The fix was changing a 0 to a 1. Even in ASCII in the source code, this was a change of 0x30 to 0x31, so a one-bit fix in both the source and the compiled binary.

            There’s the old (and possibly apocryphal) story of an engineer coming to service something, tapping the machine with a hammer, fixing it and charging $5,000. The customer objected and demanded an itemised bill. They got this:

            • Hitting the machine with a hammer: $1
            • Knowing where to hit it: $4,999

            Fixing a bug is often trivial. Figuring out the correct fix and where to put it is the hard bit. My favourite bug fixes are the ones that involve just deleting code.

            1. 4

              There’s the old (and possibly apocryphal) story of an engineer coming to service something

              Here you are

              1. 1

                This is one of those cases where the 1 byte change should be accompanied by a multi-paragraph explanation ;-)

              2. 7

                It’s not one line of code, it’s which line of code in the millions of them.

              1. 3

                Decentralised technologies like RSS never become mainstream because they don’t get any support from any major company. Google would prefer users to find what they need on google.com; Facebook and Twitter have feeds they control, Microsoft has Bing, Linkedin, etc. All those are services they fully control.

                But RSS they wouldn’t be able to control or track, it’s completely decentralised and as such there’s nothing in it for them, and no point supporting it.

                1. 1

                  For several years Google offered what was then generally considered the best RSS reader before they eventually shut it down.

                1. 2

                  Long before QQ, ICQ also assigned numeric user IDs to people & we had to remember those to message people!

                  1. 17

                    That’s all email is to me. They’re mostly unimportant messages that I receive, deal with, and move on.

                    I’m 38, and I’m feeling 83 right now. An old fossil that remembers that distant time in my youth, where email was the main, sometimes the only way people could contact me online. To this day, I cannot afford to not check my emails. Many are important. So I tend to assume, by default, that people treat their inbox the same way. Or at least that they should.

                    10-15 years ago, a friend of mine asked me to get a Facebook account, so we could keep tabs on each other. I subscribed, tried it, then quickly shut it down: that thing was clearly a glorified second inbox, and I already had one. Why would I have two inboxes to check, when I can have only one? And I certainly don’t want 10 notifications a day about distant friends petting their cat.

                    Still, Facebook has taken over. Or Twitter. Or Instagram. Or whatever. A couple years ago, I was part of an orchestra, and they set up a Facebook group (even forced me to join), because “nobody reads their email”. Like, Facebook, whose notification items fall from your wall faster than you can check them, where messages are often missed even if you’re dilligent, is more reliable than email in practice because people just don’t use their email to communicate.

                    Has email become little more than a gateway to subscription services now?

                    1. 2

                      I feel with you, tough I am several years younger. But I still experienced the pre-facebook Internet era.

                      Has email become little more than a gateway to subscription services now?

                      It depends on the persons involved. With enough care it is possible to get many people to write you e-mails; I have got nearly all of my friends to do that by now. Problems arise if people want group functionality – someone will always set up a Facebook group or a WhatsApp chatroom. Many people today are unaware of mailing lists as they should be used (many open-source projects still use this medium properly). When they hear “mailing list” they think it refers to advertisement mail. It is also problematic for non-technical people to set up a mailing list. Services like freelists.org exist, but they’re only available in English. Then, getting people to abstain from thread hijacking and do quoting right is a fight against windmills. It’d help tremendously if email clients stopped quoting the entire message on reply and just give a blank editing window. Why has this copy-on-reply ever been invented?

                      1. 4

                        Mailing list software hasn’t really kept up with the times. Ideally one should be able to create them in a few clicks - select a name/topic, add some addresses, and away you go. Each email can have a footer with links for the individual addressee to manage their “subscription”.

                        (This sort of subscription might already exist. The point is that most people can easily create a group (private or not) on Facebook. Doing the same with email is not as easy).

                        1. 2

                          I understand that your criticism is mostly targeting UX issues rather than the underlying bits and pieces. In that sense, I more or less agree. However, with regards to almost everything related to what’s happening underneath the hood, I would even go so far as calling email is the most fundamentally broken piece of critical infrastructure we have (… well, that I am more intimately familiar with anyway). And there is no reasonable escape. No open protocol will be able replace it. But it badly needs to be replaced.

                          In the late aughts, I was a college student, and our department begun transitioning away from mailing lists. I really liked the concept of mailing lists and loved using my mail clients for reading lists, but even then the experience to make lists was horrible. When I was a TA, managing the lists was also quite annoying. The web clients were also terrible.

                          (This sort of subscription might already exist. The point is that most people can easily create a group (private or not) on Facebook. Doing the same with email is not as easy).

                          Agree. I think there’s a lot of mileage to be had by the open source world by improving the experience of mailist lists or usenet sites.

                          1. 1

                            What you describe is in fact possible on Google groups already. I don’t think that’s the issue though.

                        2. 2

                          Has email become little more than a gateway to subscription services now?

                          Yeah. I’m 26 and was interested in Hey, but even if it was $50/yr it wouldn’t be worth it to me. I really don’t receive many emails. If I do, they’re newsletters, receipts, or bank transfer confirmations. I still keep my email open all day but I wouldn’t blame someone my age if they didn’t check it.

                          You’re correct that people don’t want a second or third inbox. The problem for you is that email is no longer anyone’s first inbox.

                          1. 2

                            Amazing how different lives a few people can lead. I’m in a similar age bracket and read about 300 emails on a quiet weekday (down to just a few dozen on weekends). It’s mostly not social, that stuff I keep in person as much as I can.

                            And Facebook sucks as an inbox. Try keeping more than a few dozen notifications; they silently get dropped so you never have too much clamoring for your attention.

                            1. 1

                              The problem for you is that email is no longer anyone’s first inbox.

                              What is then? It would seem there are quite a few popular “first inbox”, which would basically force me to have several outboxes (I can manage), and several inboxes so I can see the replies. Pity, really.

                          1. 1

                            “I accepted the number of homogeneous blocks to be 5 on the average.”

                            Fascinating examples, although that assumption seems arbitrary.

                            1. 3

                              The bit about Google AMP pages address confusing people is spot on. I’ve just had to tell my wife about it (she’s starting a blog/site on parenting and Google told her there are AMP errors - panic mode on!!).

                              What happened to the effort out allowing AMP on own domains?

                              1. 5

                                What happened to the effort out allowing AMP on own domains?

                                A PM for a new chat app jingled their keys and now AMP is dead.

                                1. 2

                                  In the first year, we shipped mid 8 figures per year worth of cost savings as a result.

                                  One wonders if any of this made it back in the form of bonuses.

                                  1. 2

                                    Or raises or promotions or, if the employee doesn’t feel sufficiently appreciated, an easier time interviewing for their next position.

                                    1. 1

                                      It’s highly likely that the author was well rewarded for this, yes.

                                    1. 22

                                      Simply being a woman and having a tech opinion online subjects you to techbros who will willfully misinterpret your words because they assume that you don’t understand terminology, you haven’t tried the obvious in terms of troubleshooting, etc, etc. I get this constantly on the internet (my actual working environment is not as bad, thankfully).

                                      Whenever there’s room to interpret, whenever there’s ambiguity, discrimination is what drives your decision in understanding, so we have to prove ourselves even more, constantly, for respect of basic technical knowledge.

                                      Try to catch yourself doing this. In moments where something is ambiguous, ask yourself if this is something you would otherwise interpret more generously if you were talking to a cishet white man (one who you like, just based on assumptions).

                                      Its get tiring, quick, and then you want to give up. That’s how it happens. I think many give up before even going to an interview, after years of schooling. There is so much lost talent. Talent will increase when the culture is ready to face the problem.

                                      1. 6

                                        For any men reading this who have doubts about how much worse of an experience the nerdy side of the Internet is for women, here’s an experiment you can try from the comfort of your own home: create a fake profile with an innocuous female name & an ML-generated photo of a woman (or an avatar that presents as feminine). Then use that instead of your normal one for a couple of weeks when posting stuff online & see what the experience is like.

                                        1. 11

                                          I actually did this a couple of years ago for.. less than honourable reasons honestly.

                                          I was convinced that I would be treated better by the tech community on Twitter if I posted as a woman instead of a man, mostly because I was getting berated constantly for being a white guy. (yes, it’s a minority, not real feminists, probably alt-right bots, I didn’t think about that at the time).

                                          My findings are actually very much in line with what I believed; my signal gets boosted more, people are less likely to pile on me and overall it’s a lot more pleasant to interact with people even when I reply contrary to the opinion, I’m much more likely to be treated with respect.

                                          So I made the switch full time I’m now a woman on Twitter.

                                          1. 1

                                            I did this ~10 years ago. Back then, it was a disaster in most communities; most people were civil but there was hardly anywhere lacking shitlords who would be openly sexist.

                                            Glad to hear that’s changing!

                                            1. 0

                                              This is actually very heartening to hear!

                                              1. 2

                                                It’s heartening to hear he has to pretend to be female so he isn’t getting berated for being a white male?

                                                1. 2

                                                  No, not that part. I mean it’s heartening that his experience wasn’t as bleak as it once would have been. Not being a white guy myself, I haven’t experienced what he describes either. I suppose I could do a similar experiment to find out…

                                              2. -3

                                                Lmao sick dude your experience proves that the tech community treats women better than men. That must be due to the same reason why women hold disproportionately fewer tech jobs in tech than men, and the trend is only worsening over time.

                                                1. 4

                                                  My anecdote is a single data point.

                                                  I think what you’re trying to say is that despite (at least the western US tech segment of) twitter being openly hostile to men and very welcoming to women, the industry at large still has elements of sexism. Obviously I’d agree with that to some degree. There’s so many people out there that it’s impossible to claim that we’ve ever fixed male on female sexism for good. I would argue strongly that the “trend is getting worse” is incorrect though.

                                                  But if my information offends you then I invite you to do the same, it’s not particularly hard. I fear we all have deeply held beliefs here and it’s not valuable to talk down to each other about it.

                                                  1. 1

                                                    Your story is not a data point; it’s an anecdote. And to be clear, it doesn’t “offend” me at all. Rather, I think that the overwhelming, vastly documented, and ongoing evidence of the hostility of online tech communities towards women and other minorities renders one-off anecdotes such as these not all too interesting in the broader discussion.

                                                    1. 5

                                                      It is indeed an anecdote, it’s not useful in isolation.

                                                      anecdotes such as these not all too interesting in the broader discussion.

                                                      I am responding directly to the suggestion presented as I have done this myself and it was enlightening and not in a good way for me; it nearly pushed me to the alt-right because I really felt like people were attacking me based on my skin colour and race and I can’t really control those things. However I fundamentally believe in equality so the alt-right is not appealing to me either. Thankfully on the internet nobody knows you’re a dog.

                                                      I am not sure what cross you have to bear with my presented experience, I’m definitely not discounting anything regarding male-on-female discrimination.

                                                      Actually, to be perfectly honest you’re proving my point slightly. The tech community that I follow is so focused on sexism towards women that they perceive all men, especially white men, as “out to get them” if they engage with them at all, and that pervades all future discussion.

                                                      It doesn’t have to be political, even innocuous suggestions, improvements, more information etc; is taken as a hostile act when presented by a white man. in these circles. (“mansplaining” being the common retort when engaging people this way, but when given by a perceived woman are engaged with compassionately.)

                                                      Obviously it’s an anecdote though, obviously it’s an anecdote, and your mileage will likely be very different from mine depending on the circles you’re in and how you approach people online.

                                                      But, for sure there’s still a lot of horrible shit that people do to each other, I still see the “2 minute hate’ threads on twitter because some absolute twat decided that sending a picture of his dick to a girl or trying to flirt (badly) on linkedin is a good idea.

                                                    2. 1

                                                      I don’t know what you mean when you describe Twitter in that way, but I can assure you, there are plenty of other data points that disagree with your perspective. Do you honestly believe that white men on Twitter (or anywhere, really) suffer from a worse experience?

                                                      1. 5

                                                        I don’t think that someone’s experience of hostility in online communication has much to do with their ethnic background or gender. It’s fairly easy to find discourse on twitter that talks in disparaging terms about all sorts of demographic groups, including women as a class, men as a class, and white men specifically as a class. Different people will be bothered by the existence of people who vocally disparage their demographic group to different degrees.

                                                        I do think that overtly anti-white-male rhetoric has a great deal more mainstream acceptance than anti-female rhetoric, and that this has to do with widespread social attitudes in English-speaking countries that only women can be legitimately harmed in a sexist way or only nonwhites can be legitimately harmed in a racist way. In practice, many of the ways that anti-white-male sentiment manifests itself is in malicious accusations of sexism or racism; that is, authority figures selectively characterizing behaviors as punishably racist (against nonwhites) or punishably sexist (against women) when the person doing that behavior is believed to be a white male, while simultaneously refusing to characterize similar behavior by nonwhites or women as punishably racist or sexist.

                                                        1. 1

                                                          Oh, I’m not speaking about disparagement. I think we’re discussing different things.

                                                          1. -2

                                                            I do think that overtly anti-white-male rhetoric has a great deal more mainstream acceptance than anti-female rhetoric, and that this has to do with widespread social attitudes in English-speaking countries that only women can be legitimately harmed in a sexist way or only nonwhites can be legitimately harmed in a racist way.

                                                            Let’s be clear: this is not a widespread social attitude; english-speaking white majority countries tend to be, on the whole, still pretty racist and sexist. This social attitude you refer to is actually a fact. In societies with histories of racial and gender-based violence that overwhelmingly do harm to women and people of color, being “racist towards a white” and “racist towards a POC” are categorically not the same. I.e. in the US, slavery, redlining, jim crow, mass incarceration, disproportionate policing of communities of color lead to fundamentally unjust outcomes in the quality of life for someone born black as opposed to born white. So to a person of color in the US, racism means worse education, higher degree of poverty, a shorter life expectancy, a greater chance of being incarcerated, a lower chance of being able to vote, and the list goes on. And in terms of gender in the US, working women are still living with a significant pay gap, harassment in the workplace, and forms of cultural oppression. On the other hand, the magnitude of effect of “anti-white racism” and anti-men rhetoric generally boils down to hurt feelings (which I do not mean to downplay) and the occasional highly-publicized cancelling of high-profile white men which doesn’t come close to the magnitude of effect of centuries of discrimination in the other direction. It is dishonest and ahistorical to equate these forms of prejudice.

                                                            1. 4

                                                              this is not a widespread social attitude; english-speaking white majority countries tend to be, on the whole, still pretty racist and sexist.

                                                              I mean, a less charitable person would definitely say “compared to what”; because “on the whole” the west is a lot more amicable than other countries and cultures, but let’s not go there.

                                                              On the other hand, the magnitude of effect of “anti-white racism” and anti-men rhetoric generally boils down to hurt feelings […] and the occasional highly-publicized cancelling of high-profile white men.

                                                              Your entire argument boils down to this I feel, that inequity of men is justified because it’s not as bad. But consider for a moment the worst effects of what you’re implying.

                                                              If as a sub-culture which is pushing for mainstream acceptance you are to engage in open misandry and racism, not only does that show a blinding hypocrisy, but it also pushes your majority of people (who feel attacked) towards extremism, even if many feel guilt and will take extra caution.

                                                              Some of what you’re saying really feels to me like you’ve stopped thinking about society as “a bunch of people” and started thinking of it as a “system” which is made of demographics which can only act in a singular way. This is incredibly harmful because it’s engaging in exactly the kind of stereotyping that feminism is (and has been) trying to destroy for half a century.

                                                              When I see things like conferences being shut down due to lack of diversity of speakers and there blind speaker selections which attempt to remove bias and then it “didn’t go the way they liked” I’m reminded of identity politics, again and again, when in reality we should be promoting those who do good and not tearing people down because they happened to be born a certain way.

                                                              which doesn’t come close to the magnitude of effect of centuries of discrimination in the other direction. It is dishonest and ahistorical to equate these forms of prejudice.

                                                              White guilt based on the sins of the father.

                                                              You’ll have to forgive me for not feeling bad about being bad about being birthed with a skin colour. Since, you know, that’s kind of the point of being against racism.


                                                              FD:

                                                              I grew up, poor, the kind of poor that I don’t think you can actually imagine. The kind of poor where the idea of clothing is a birthday gift exclusively and sometimes you go to bed for dinner instead of eating.

                                                              I grew up also, in central England, in a city in major decline, surrounded by people from Pakistan, Bangledesh, India and parts of Subsaharan Africa. Even they didn’t know poverty like mine because there were programs for them to prevent it (not that I’m salty, I’m glad for them). The notion that “I” am to blame for the historical transgressions of white people and men, with my life, of being chased, surrounded by pedophiles, stabbed on the street, mugged and beaten on average once a quarter and surrounded exclusively by crime knowing that if you just broke into someones house you’d eat that day- have it “better” than any other person is just fucking stupid, racist and disgusting and you should be ashamed.

                                                              1. 1

                                                                Your entire argument boils down to this I feel, that inequity of men is justified because it’s not as bad.

                                                                No, I’m sorry, this is not my argument. My argument is that no intellectually honest person willing to engage with history would conclude that “racism against whites” and “racism against people of color” are remotely comparable, nor could they conclude that “sexism towards men” and “sexism towards women” (and LGBTQ) are destructive on remotely the same plane. It simply denies both history and contemporary events. This point was directed at @Hail_Spacecake btw, not yourself.

                                                                I grew up, poor

                                                                I am genuinely sorry to hear this, and you truly have my sympathy. Poverty is a grotesque failure of wealthy societies, especially in countries such as yours and mine. Nobody should have to go to bed hungry. Thanks for sharing your experience here.

                                                                The notion that “I” am to blame for the historical transgressions of white people and men, with my life, of being chased, surrounded by pedophiles, stabbed on the street, mugged and beaten on average once a quarter and surrounded exclusively by crime knowing that if you just broke into someones house you’d eat that day- have it “better” than any other person is just fucking stupid, racist and disgusting and you should be ashamed.

                                                                I am not blaming “you” nor arguing that poor whites have it “better” than affluent people of color (they don’t! it’s complicated!). This is elucidated by intersectional theory beginning with the feminist movement. I don’t really have much to say here except to reiterate my point above – I am not attempting to engage in the question of whether anti-white prejudice is justified. I am trying to point out that “anti-black is just as bad as anti-white” is a naive and anti-intellectual reduction of a complicated subject made by folks who are not willing to read history books.

                                                2. 2

                                                  This is a good point, and something I’ve witnessed as well. But the solution can’t be to engage in more discrimination. The “men are bad, so let’s punish men” narrative is nonsense and just as bad as harassing women in the first place.

                                                  Calling out discrimination, harassment, and so on when you see it something we can all do. I think public shaming and whistleblowing is an under-utilized tool. There’s also a lack of legal protections for whistleblowers.

                                                  I worked at a startup where there was rampant sexual harassment all the way up into the C-level team, the head of HR knew all about it, and when I quit I was threatened by my former manager who called me to tell me I should keep quiet about it. They also tried to force me to sign a non-disparagement agreement but I refused to do so (they threatened to sue but never followed through because they had no case).

                                                  1. 0

                                                    Calling out discrimination, harassment, and so on when you see it something we can all do.

                                                    I’ve spoken out in defense of RMS and James Damore when they were harassed and discriminated against by ideological feminists in the tech industry, to the point of being successfully driven out of their job in Damore’s case, and his position as head of the FSF in RMS’s.

                                                1. 5

                                                  The real news here is that AVIF is amazing!

                                                  1. 4

                                                    I think where it ends up is right:

                                                    In practice you would probably just compile a version that was passed a pointer to the type information, because the type information gives you size, alignment, and pointer information all in one place with only a single argument.

                                                    But, just as a curiosity, I think you could do a copy with only a size. The only member besides size that the typedmemmove source accesses is ptrdata, which, though the name sounds super general, only says how far into the object you need to look to be sure you’ve found all the pointers. Using that instead of the object size here seems to be an optimization: if ptrdata is 1, for instance, the runtime can quit worrying about possible pointers in an object after the first word, and if it’s zero it needn’t scan at all. You could write memmove code to conservatively act as if any word of the object might be a pointer, you’re just potentially wasting some effort.

                                                    The detailed data about which words of the allocation have pointers/need scanning comes from a GC bitmap that’s set up at allocation time. (You can just use an address to look a word up in this bitmap.) But that means that to allocate you need pointer/(no)scan information to set the bits. If allocating just to copy data you could in theory copy the GC bitmap from source to dest before you copy the data, but you’d still need the type’s alignment to get a properly aligned slot in memory and…yeah, maybe at that point we just pass a type pointer around instead.

                                                    This all makes me wonder what choices the team will make about compilation of generics: max speed of compiled code (by compiling as many optimized versions of the code as needed) vs. a dynamic implementation to avoid hurting compile time or binary size (so the resulting machine code looks like if you’d used interfaces). I can see the case for either: maybe these are a specialized tool for max performance for sorts, collections, etc. or maybe they’re mostly to make source better-checked and clearer. Or maybe we start with the dynamic approach (possibly quicker to implement?) then tune the generated output over future releases. Haven’t followed discussions super closely; if someone knows what has been said about this I’m interested.

                                                    1. 2

                                                      Yeah I wonder if there will be any implementation problems due to the combination of monomorphized generics and a potential explosion of GC bitmaps per type.

                                                      I think most of the languages monomorphized generics like C++ and Rust don’t have GC. Although I guess D is an exception. Not sure what they do exactly, but it probably helps that they have their own back end and not LLVM.

                                                      Not sure what C# does either. I think it has more VM support.

                                                      1. 2

                                                        .NET generics use monomorphization for value types and a shared instantiation for reference types.
                                                        The new() constraint is handled with reflection.

                                                        1. 1

                                                          This might provide useful background on the topic.

                                                        2. 2

                                                          I believe they were intentionally careful not to specify so that they could experiment & potentially offer multiple compile-time options.

                                                          1. 2

                                                            Yes, the design document’s implementation section explicitly leaves the question open (and is worth reading).

                                                            Curious what they do!

                                                          2. 1

                                                            Besides reducing the code bloat and avoiding the need for a special intermediate representation of compiled but unspecialized generics, the dynamic approach has the added benefit (at least from the POV of Go’s goals) that it discourages excessively fine-grained abstractions (e.g., how Arc and Mutex have to be separately applied to get Arc<Mutex<T>> in Rust), because it would have too much runtime overhead.

                                                          1. 13

                                                            Not having to commute is a great benefit of working from home

                                                            Disagree with this one, and somewhat disagree with the ‘flexibility’ point too. As a long-term bike commuter, I rely on my morning and evening commute to give me exercise, fresh air, and decisively book-end my eight-hour work day. For me anyway, work-life balance is a lot more achievable when there’s clear separation. Sure, I can go on a ride or a brisk walk with that time even when WFH, and I do, most days… but it’s too easy to skip.

                                                            1. 2

                                                              You have a nice routine that nicely integrate with your days. Some people have hours of commute by bus or sometime 30minutes by train, which by bike would translate to 2hours.

                                                              1. 2

                                                                Well obviously OP isn’t speaking for everyone. I have a few coworkers who are glad they don’t have their 1hr-each-way commutes right now. Meanwhile the author of the article seems to be projecting their opinion on the reader (e.g. “Now you can use that time any way you want.”), so OP was somewhat justified in disagreeing since their personal opinion is the exact opposite of what the author thought it should be.

                                                                On the other hand, I’ve lived in places where a 30 minute car commute is <30 minutes by bicycle because the traffic sucks.

                                                              2. 2

                                                                If you are lucky enough to live in a place where the combination of driving culture, road quality, and climate allows for safely riding to work without risking life and limb, then yes. For many people it’s not the case, and I think it’s the majority of people in the world (though I have no data to prove it).

                                                                1. 4

                                                                  Driving is the most dangerous thing most people do. Most people here are from the USA (I’m not, I’m from a virtually completely flat and very bicycle-friendly city in New Zealand), so let’s use the USA as an example. Americans have a terrible time cycling anywhere in most of the country, even in their biggest cities. Yet tens of thousands of people (35k!) die in car crashes in the USA every year.

                                                                  1. 2

                                                                    You have to account for the far greater number of people who drive when making that comparison.

                                                                    1. 3

                                                                      You must also take into account that cycling is safer the more people that do it, and the safer it is, the more people do it.

                                                                      That’s because when there are more cyclists around, drivers are more aware of cyclists and they’re more likely to think about checking for cyclists in their blind spots when changing lanes or turning if they can see cyclists around them or have seen cyclists already on the trip, or have seen cyclists in those spots before. I suspect people also become more careful about checking for cyclists if they know someone that does. I know that I did.

                                                                      That people are more likely to cycle when it’s safer probably doesn’t need explanation. If you ever survey people, a huge number of them - something like 60% - would seriously consider cycling if they had separated cycle lanes. Something like 1% of people will cycle basically no matter what, around another 10% will cycle if there are bare minimum cycle lanes (those crappy ones that are just a line painted on the side of the road), around 30% of people will just never cycle and the remaining ~60% require more significant cycling infrastructure with properly grade-separated cycle lanes.

                                                                      The thing is those cycle lanes pay for themselves in lower costs to the public health system. Well, at least in countries with public health systems. :)

                                                                      1. 2

                                                                        You don’t need to convince me. I’m a huge proponent of using bikes as a way to get around.

                                                                    2. 1

                                                                      Biking is not very safe either, especially when you don’t have dedicated lanes.

                                                                      1. 1

                                                                        Bike lanes protect against being rear ended on a bike. In the US, that makes up 0.7%(2011 when I researched this) of the bicycle fatalities.

                                                                        More dangerous are left and right hooks, where drivers don’t see you when preparing a turn because you are not part of all other traffic. Bike lanes make that particular problem worse.

                                                                        I ride my bike on streets as part of all other fast moving traffic. I might not be going faster than 15 miles an hour, but I prefer to be safer as part of the road than dangerously separate out of sight and mind for car drivers.

                                                                        1. 1

                                                                          As part of my driver’s education decades ago in Sweden, I was trained to note where bike lanes were parallell to the street on which I was driving and to be aware of the chance of bike traffic when turning.

                                                                1. 8

                                                                  I feel like half of the .xyz domains hosts malware.

                                                                  1. 2

                                                                    Yeah, .xyz domains are strongly associated with spam; probably because it’s such a cheap domain name. I don’t know if there are spam/SEO penalties against it, but I wouldn’t be surprised. Generally speaking, I wouldn’t really recommend using it for a serious project/product.

                                                                    Also, myproject.xyz sounds weird to me, but perhaps that’s just me.

                                                                    1. 1

                                                                      SEO penalties for it seem unlikely given https://abc.xyz/

                                                                  1. 4

                                                                    All of this is effectively what AppEngine provided out of the box 12 years ago.

                                                                    1. 3

                                                                      We’re also going to continue to bump up against limitations on the data layer. This is when we are going to want to start looking into partitioning and sharding the database.

                                                                      Weird that sharding is only mentioned in the final section.

                                                                      These both require more overhead, but effectively allow the data layer to scale infinitely.

                                                                      I disagree. Even sharding runs into problems of hot partitions/keys and data locality.

                                                                      I’d say, in fact, that all of these solutions are mechanisms to solve data locality. CPUs are infinity times faster than memory / network / storage these days. Therefore scaling is a “simple” matter of putting compute beside all the relevant data.

                                                                      Simple. 🙄🤬😭

                                                                      1. 3

                                                                        Weird that sharding is only mentioned in the final section.

                                                                        Sharding solves problems but makes life harder for ops people and, sometimes, provides no benefit. Say you guess wrong and only users starting with M get popular, your sharding system is basically wasted while everything still falls over.

                                                                        1. 1

                                                                          There’s a new generation of databases that have reduced toil for our ops people anyway. I’m thinking about things like Spanner, DyanmoDB, and TiDB. All with different models, but all promise horizontal scalability in their own way.

                                                                      2. 3

                                                                        Even though this has been possible on PaaS solutions for a while, I’d say the article is still valuable.

                                                                        I find it a good rule of thumb to understand why the stack beneath is built the way it is. Maybe a limitation is an enabler for future growth, or it might just be a limitation of the PaaS platform, as the platforms often strive to be generic and usable for most workloads. Without knowing the reasoning behind it, you couldn’t know if your use case could benefit from something less generic.

                                                                        Another good advice is to scale as you get users. Maybe the service isn’t gaining any traction because your app was a month or two too late to market because of scaling ahead. Or excessive scaling could kill the startup due to high costs.

                                                                      1. 1

                                                                        In Go you can have the unit tests be part of the same pkg as the code so they can use private constructors.

                                                                        1. 3

                                                                          I guess $BIGCO was MSFT (LinkedIn), although it looks like he left for a few months then mysteriously returned for a few months before leaving again! In case any of you haven’t seen this amusing but deadly accurate comic about Big Tech: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/%22Org_charts%22_comic_by_Manu_Cornet.png

                                                                          1. 3

                                                                            So, the Expression Problem thing from Featherweight Go is out? It seemed a nice addition to me, easy to grok and useful.

                                                                            It’s the ability to require additional constraints in some methods of a generic type, such as:

                                                                            type Tree(type T) struct {
                                                                                Value T
                                                                                Left, Right *Tree(T)
                                                                            }
                                                                            
                                                                            func (t Tree(type T comparable)) Contains(element T) bool {
                                                                                if t.Value == element {
                                                                                    return true
                                                                                }
                                                                                if t.Left != nil && t.Left.Find(element) {
                                                                                    return true
                                                                                }
                                                                                return t.Right != nil && t.Right.Find(element)
                                                                            }
                                                                            
                                                                            func ... {
                                                                                Tree(int).Contains(123) // can
                                                                                Tree([]int).Contains([]int{123}) // can't; []int is not comparable
                                                                            }
                                                                            
                                                                            1. 5

                                                                              It seems every time I look at go code, it becomes hard for my brain to figure out what part of a function declaration is doing what.

                                                                              1. 3

                                                                                That’s just lack of familiarity. 2-3 days of looking at or writing it will fix this.

                                                                              2. 1

                                                                                Agreed. Looks to be substantially reducing the usefulness of generics and will probably force adding “optional” constraints to the class instead.

                                                                              1. 6

                                                                                First, you work all month, and then you give half of the money to those who didn’t. It’s called TAXES.

                                                                                I found this a little frustrating and had trouble concentrating on the article after reading it. I understand it was probably meant as a joke but there are people who really don’t realise that all the infrastructure they use every day is not free. I don’t think perpetuating that delusion, even as a joke, is a good idea.

                                                                                1. 1

                                                                                  I found the same. I thought the article was quite interesting, but didn’t like that dismissive description of what taxes were.

                                                                                  1. 1

                                                                                    The author does address this a bit later on.

                                                                                  1. 1

                                                                                    When I saw the headline I thought it was really funny that they had also used the name Maglev for a tool that does exactly what Google’s tool by the same name does. But then I got to the part where they actually link to that tool & I realized it was in fact the same Maglev!